Of course custom tuning can address the issue. That's why you need to tune for running an aggressive CAI or nitrous rather than just letting the ECM take care of it. All the MAF sensor is telling the computer is how much air is flowing past it, not the composition of that air/how much O2 is in it.
Although you are correct in individual component function, this does not neget the software program and models (including the job of the O2 sensors- both upstream & downstream that in essence is one of several principle sensors that tell the ecm if the fuel mix is correct and what to correct by) that they are designed with. Custom tuning cannot address this issue...… what a tuner does is change the tables to increase or decrease the fuel mixture across a given rpm bandwidth...….. it doesn't care or even know about the elevation.....that is accomplished through an algorithm which unless you are a real software programmer with most likely a PHd in the field, you would not even know where to begin. The "aggressive CAI", there is no such think.... let me explain.....
The2013 Mustang 5.0 V8, for example if close to stock (assuming 6,800 max rpm& 90% volumetric efficiency- note that is race car spec and likely higherthan reality) can only suck in a maximum of 535 CFM, and the OEM flat panel filter (12.375” x 9.675”) will flow 718 cfm, there is simply no way any CAI on a relatively stock enginecan increase the air flow enough to exceed the ECM’s ability to adjust andmaintain the correct fuel mixture. The onlyreason for the “custom” program to support the CAI is because the design ispoor resulting in false readings from the air intake sensors (due to their relocation or positioning), etc….period! If you look at the dyno charts from many ofthese supposed HP/TQ increases, they are typically around 5%-7% at peak rpmranges…….guess what, 5% is a standard deviation even amongst mfg dynos and ifyou go to this link http://www.fordracingparts.com/download/tipsPDF/EnginePerformanceTechTips.pdf
the engineers at Ford racing have a article on just exactly how these “tuners”play games with the hp/tq ratings, how calibration can cause misleading dynoresults, & some of the “tricks” that are used to gain supposed powerincreases when in fact, mis-managing your engine….. and the most important itemis……these “expert tuners” (at least most) do not have or choose not to testtheir results (in comparison to the oem intakes) during actual vehicle motion(or simulation- such as a wind tunnel) as the oems do. What many view as an issue (is the plasticintake tube) actually increases airpressure. It is the same hydraulicconcept used by fire fighters creating water supply where psi is low. By havingthe air cross the path at a 90 degree angle, the pressure is increasedproportionally. Fire fighters use whatis called a “4-way valve” or “Blake Valve” at the hydrant where the water iscycled through the fire engine (pump) and sent back into the valve crossing thewater flow at a 90 degree angle. At low speeds, this can reduce the flow a tad (which is what most “feel”),but in terms of peak hp/tq, a good high flow filter is all that is needed.
In 2012 on jay Leno’s garage, when inquired, Fords Mustang Chief Engineer DavePericak
specifically stated that the use of an aftermarket CAI will donothing to gain any power. Testand Corporation conducted an ISO standardstest on automotive air filters which can be viewed at this link: http://www.dieselbombers.com/chevrolet-diesel-tech-articles/16611-duramax-air-filter-testing.html. All I can say is this explains in detail thereason for Arlen Spicer wrote, and I quote... “Now that I am not doing the tests and my objectivity is not necessary, letme explain my motivation. The reason I started this crusade was that I wasseeing people spend a lot of money on aftermarket filters based on the word ofa salesperson or based on the misleading, incomplete or outright deceivinginformation printed on boxes and in sales literature. Gentlemen and Ladies,Marketing and the lure of profit is VERY POWERFUL! It is amazing how manypeople believe that better airflow = more power! Unless you have modificationsout the wazoo, a more porous filter will just dirty your oil!