S197 Mustang Tech Links - Page 7 - Ford Mustang Forum
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A little tech info on intercoolers.

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2005 Mustang GT Automatic Screaming Yellow
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SCTuning by John and Matt - Mustang Muscle Performance
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FRPP 3.73 Gears, IMCO Extreme Axle Back Exhaust

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2005+ Mustang seat removal and installation instructions

Mustang seat removal and installation instructions.

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2005+ Mustang Center Console Removal Procedures

2005+ Mustang Center Console Removal Procedures
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A guide to header selection on the S197 Mustang GT

Courtesy of Sqidd!

Header design is EVERYTHING and exhaust flow is fairly irrelevant in the sense that stock manifolds, shorties and long tubes will all flow plenty of exhaust through them. They are by no means a restriction. But with exhaust you are not trying to “flow” exhaust. There is no exhaust flow in the literal sense. There are exhaust pulses (which are little columns of “flow” if you want to get technical) which if timed correctly can be used to increase momentum (scavenging) of the exhaust gases. A simple way of thinking about it is if an exhaust pulse from one tube reaches the collector right as another tubes exhaust valve opens it will create a kind of vacuum in the collector which will help the just created exhaust pulse move faster. Consequently if the timing of the pulse is off a reverse pressure wave can be created that will bounce back against an exhaust pulse and therefore slow down the exhaust gases.

Log style manifolds (stock) have no “timing” in them and they are effectively very short tubes dumping into a big plenum. And they don’t even have a “collector” to speak of. Stock manifolds, if they create any sort of scavenging effect is purely by accident. Stock manifolds are so simple that they can only be defined by their “flow”. It’s a good thing they have an abundance of it. The stock exhaust manifolds have proven to be a very small restriction to supercharged motors which don’t rely on scavenging like a naturally aspirated motor does. You can make a lot of power with a supercharged motor while still retaining the stock manifolds.

Unequal length shorty headers probably don’t have a flow advantage over a log style stock manifold and if they do have some scavenging effect it is by accident again and minimal. What they do have is a collector. I could go on forever about collector design and why some designs work with some combos better than others but the basics are that a collector should help the individual tubes to merge the gases together in an orderly, smooth and in some cases timed fashion to increase exhaust velocity. The collector is about the only measurable advantage that an unequal length header will have over a stock manifold. I have yet to see concrete dyno results that show unequal length shorty headers offer an hp advantage over the stock manifolds. I have seen a few dyno tests but the testing procedures were sloppy at best and the gains claimed within the standard un-repeatability of chassis dyno’s. Any result from a chassis dyno under 15hp can be easily attributed to inconsistent testing conditions. Simply getting the differential and transmission fluids up to temperature will show as much as a 5hp gain. And that is only one example of many possible variables. The lack of articles about shorty headers and their “gains” is also a big clue that they don’t offer much of a gain if any. If there was a set of shorty headers out there that made even as little as 10hp and 10tq the manufacturer would most certainly be going WAY out of their way to organize a test for one of the magazines to report on. A PROVEN 10hp gain from a set of shorty headers would assure that manufacturer a truckload of sales. And to add insult to injury shorty headers are only about 1.5lb lighter than the OEM manifolds so there isn’t a big weight savings either. In my opinion unequal length shorty headers are a complete waste of money unless you think the money spent is worth how much better they look than the OEM manifolds. I want to want some. They are relatively inexpensive, easy to put on, and may sound a bit better. But the lack of PROVEN hp gains makes them a dumb buy.

An equal length shorty again will “flow” the same amount of exhaust gas as an unequal length shorty and not much more than a stock manifold but by equalizing the tubing lengths there may be a slight advantage in scavenging effect because of exhaust pulse timing. But the primary tubes are way too short to be able to take advantage of exhaust pulse timing. F1 Motors use very short headers, but not as short as a set of “shorty” headers and the F1 motors rev to 18,000+rpm’s! They of course also have a collector which will help a little with exhaust gas velocity. The collector design has everything to do with how well that works though and the only nice equal length shorty with a good collector design I have seen are the JBA ones. Just like the unequal length shorty headers the equal length ones have not been proven to make power over the stock manifolds and for all the same reasons. Technically the equal length shorty header should out perform the unequal length shorty headers but if the unequal length headers are only worth 2hp, which is entirely probable, the equal length ones could be 50% better, which would be a lot and still only be worth 3hp. The equal length shorty headers are a colossal waste of money just like the unequal length ones are. There are literally hundreds of ways to spend your money smarter.

Now long tube equal length “tuned” headers are the cats a$$. Now the primary tubes are long enough to start timing exhaust pulses correctly (or most efficiently) and since they are so long the collector design can be very good because a long smooth merging collector is the most efficient. I’m pretty sure the optimum length for a long tube header on a 4.6L is 32” or there a bouts, that’s what I mean by tuned length. The length dictates the timing of the exhaust pulses and when they get to the collector. If everything is perfect every exhaust pulse helps the one behind it and it will actually start to “suck” the following exhaust pulse (scavenging) behind it. Tuned length and the timing of the exhaust pulses is the key to making a header work. There is a lot of Voodoo in the design of a great header. Take a look at some NASCAR headers sometime, they are incredible.

Other factors in exhaust performance are the heat inside the tubing. The hotter the gases inside the tube the faster they will flow. That’s why ceramic headers or heat wrapped headers are an advantage, they keep the heat in. On some motors, and I don’t know if the 4.6L is included will see a massive exhaust gas pulse timing advantage by taking one primary from each side of the motor and running them over to the other sides collector. This is a product of the firing order of the motor. Windsor motors are like this. This style of header is a “180 Degree” header. You don’t see them much outside of pure race cars because obviously packaging is a nightmare. Strangely enough the X-pipe design came from someone (Dr. Gas) who was trying to mimic the 180 deg style of header. X-pipes help with exhaust timing and balance. It can almost be looked at as a third collector. H-pipes help with balance only.

One last factor to consider in exhaust performance is if you have FI. The scavenging effect or the desire for it isn’t nearly as critical as a NA motor. Why you ask? Because the exhaust pulses are being pushed out with a lot more force because the next piston that is getting its intake charge is being force fed which actually turns the intake stroke into a sort of mini power stroke in the sense it is helping move gases somewhere else in the motor. Now with a FI car the percentage of actual true exhaust flow goes up in comparison to exhaust pulse timing quite a bit because the size of the tubing can now become a restriction and since the exhaust pulses have something behind them pushing scavenging is not nearly as important. A good example of this is that a 325rwhp-ish NA car can pick up 20-25rwhp with some long tube headers and a solid tune. That is a 7-8%hp increase and it will be all the way across the rev range. Putting the same set of headers on a 450rwhp FI car will pick up about 15-18rwhp. That’s only a 2% hp increase. Clearly FI motors are not nearly as dependant on exhaust gas pulse timing, or scavenging as NA motors are. I imagine that if you sat down to design a FI specific full length header you would find that the tubing size, primary tube length and the collector design would need to be a lot different than the NA long tubes to be 100% efficient.

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Research courtesy of Sqidd.

Here are some sizes for TB’s and MAF’s and their corresponding flow numbers:


Throttle Bodies...........Dia.............................. cfm
OEM GT......................55mm(x2).................. ....890
OEM GT500.................60mm(x2).................... ..1100
FRPP GT.....................62mm(x2)................... ...1130.74
FRPP GT500................63.5mm(x2)................... .1167.39
KB GT........................130mm(oval)............. ......1450(claimed)
KB GT500....................75mm(x2)................. .....1880(claimed)



MAF
Stock MAF..................81.37mm...................... ...963
85mm mass air meter........................................1050. 89
KB 93mm mass air meter....................................1273.87
95mm mass air meter........................................1312. 71
KB Oval......................130mm(oval)............. ......1625(claimed)
KB Oval w/filter............130mm(oval)...................18 30(claimed)


Some interesting things of note:

KB’s GT stage 2 kit (identical to stage 1 aside from the bigger TB) flows more cfm through the TB than the MAF, about 175cfm.

KB claims adding their big oval filter to their 130mm oval MAF increases the cfm of the MAF by 205cfm. Interesting to say the least.

When running a KB on a GT500 with their biggest stuff. 75mm TB, 130mm oval MAF and the big oval filter the TB still flows more cfm than the MAF/filter.

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MAF and Throttle Body Information

MAF and Throttle Body Information

Throttle Bodies...........Dia................sq.mm......... ........cfm
OEM GT......................55mm(x2)......4751.68..... ..........890
OEM GT500.................60mm(x2)......5654.88....... ........1100
FRPP GT.....................62mm(x2)......6038.16...... .........1130.74
FRPP GT500................63.5mm(x2)...6233.86......... ......1167.39
KB GT........................130mm(oval)...NA........ ..............1450 (claimed)
KB GT500...................75mm(x2).......8835.74.... ..........1880 (claimed)



MAF...........................Dia................. sq.mm.................cfm
Stock MAF...................81.37mm .......5198.91................963
85mm mass air meter.......................5674.51............... .1050.89
KB 93mm mass air meter...................6802.44................127 3.87
95mm mass air meter.......................7088.23............... .1312.71
KB Oval 130mm(oval)....................................... ............1625 (claimed)
KB Oval w/filter 130mm(oval)....................................... ..1830 (claimed)

Waiting on 2019 GT500

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Last edited by stlwagon; 03-26-2010 at 11:35 AM.
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Cam selection guide.

Cam selection guide download.

CamQuest 6 -FREE Download from COMP Cams

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How to set your pinion angle correctly:

You can use jackstands to support the axle, ramps or a drive on lift which is best. The first thing you need to do is measure your rear ride height though. Measure the distance from the tire to the fender lift (vertically). This is your ride height. You HAVE TO check/set pinion angle at this ride height or you are wasting your time. You will find it is very hard to replicate the cars ride height if you are not using a drive on lift. I ended up using ramps with 480-lb of sandbags in the trunk to replicate mine. So there is your first challenge. You don’t do it right you are wasting the rest of your time.

The biggest misconception is what “negative” pinion angle is. Negative pinion angle is an angle less than where you would set the driveline angles at in an ideal world where the axle doesn’t “wind up” under launch. If you are going for a -2* angle it needs to be X-2*, X being what the perfect driveline angle is. The perfect driveline angle is when the pinion angle and the transmission tailshaft angle are in “phase”. You need to set, or at least figure out then do the math based on the driveshaft being in “phase”. Here is a link that explains it in detail. Like ride height if you do not figure out what your driveline angles need to be set at to be in phase before you go adjusting for a negative pinion angle you are wasting your time. The angle of your driveline while in “phase” should be considers “zero”. If you do not find that zero you have on basis for any math from that point on.

http://www.roddingroundtable.com/tec...driveline.html

Now that you have your driveline running in “phase” its time to set your driveline angle for dragstrip launches. If you are not doing drag launches you don’t need or want any negative pinion angle as long as you have quality control arms. The pinion changes angle very, very little if you have quality control arms. I have tested this with my data acquisition system and potentiometer hooked up to the pinion. Unless you are running drag radials and have at least 450hp leave your driveline set in “phase” or zero. Your pinion barely deflects when you drop the clutch with under 450hp or you are running real drag radials.

If you are putting down some pony’s and running sticky rubber the pinion will deflect when the clutch is dropped, but not much and not for long. -2* is pretty extreme and I would only run it for a car that was at the track a lot and getting 60ft times under 1.8sec. The reason being that if you are just driving down the road at -2* you are putting a lot of strain on your U-joints (they are out of phase) and the car will have less rear wheel horsepower. And lastly you will get a high speed vibration. For a car that has good control arms, goes to the track but also drives around on the street I would set it up at -1*.

Ok, back on point. So you are under your car and you have already set the driveshaft up “in phase”. If you want to set the pinion at -1* all you need to do is take the current pinion angle that you just set, which could be just about anything depending on if the car is level, etc. and adjust the pinion 1* down from there. A -1* pinion angle is simply your in “phase” pinion angle minus one. It is irrelevant what the in phase number is.
  • Get a good digital angle finder.
  • Have a few pieces of angle aluminum (the kind you can get at Home Depot) to use as a “base” for the gauge.
  • Get the car in the air.
  • Exactly replicate the rear ride height
  • Put jack stands under where the K-member meets the floorpan then put your jack under the K-member right under the motor. Jack the jack up until the weight of the car is just coming off of the front jackstands. This is to remove the droop that the front end of the car has when supported by the “tub” and the wheels are not loaded. It’s a lot more than you would imagine and it changes the transmissions output shaft angle considerably. And unless your Trans output shaft is at the angle that it is while the car is on the ground you will not calculate your “in phase” angles correctly and everything after that will be wrong.
  • Take your time
  • When you measure for your “in phase” settings it is a lot easier to remove the driveshaft and use the trans/rear end flange as your base for your angle finder. It is very repeatable and the angle of the driveshaft is secondary. The angles of the trans/rear end in relation to each other are what is important.
  • Measure everything a BILLION times. There are a ton of variables. You will find that you will not get repeatable measurements unless you start to eliminate them. Only after you can take all of the measurements 3-4 times in a row with no changes have you eliminated all the variables.
  • Keep in mind, 1* is very, very small. This is not a rough adjustment. It is therefore very easy to be 3* off just because of how you are placing the angle finder. This is where repeatability comes into play. If it does not repeat, you don’t know what you have.
Now that you have all that figured out and you are ready to rock here comes the “screw” and why Ford uses 2pc driveshafts……..You can’t set the pinion angle up to be in phase with a 1pc shaft. The trans/engine are at too steep of an angle and if you were to draw a straight line out of the Trans shaft it would intersect a point below the center of the pinion flange. And it only gets worse as the car is lowered. Now think about that in your head for a moment.

If the Trans points below the diff the driveshaft has to run at an up angle out of the Trans to meet the diff. Obviously not ideal. At a bare minimum you want the Trans pointed directly at the center of the diff, but U-joints need angle in them to work correctly so that is just a lesser of two evil’s. What you would end up with is a zero deg angle at the Trans and the diff (once the pinion angle was set to match the Trans angle). I drew a rough pic (and I mean rough!) that depicts the Trans angle in relation to the position of the diff. Clearly that is not right or easily solved if you are running a 1pc shaft.

I have tried running the Trans and the diff at negative angles so they would be in phase (like in the link) but like the link mentioned that is more for industrial/agricultural scenarios. It vibrated like mad. The best I was ever able to get it set up was with the angle at the Trans at about zero and the pinion slightly negative. It still vibrated because it was out of phase, but that was the best it would get.

Since I had the chassis stripped down over the last almost year I “fixed” the engine/trans angle issue by cutting 20mm out of my Prothane’s and shimming the trans mount to tip the trans angle up so that it points at a spot above the pinion. And it is barely above even with the motor/trans moved what is effectively a “mile”. Set up like this I have been able to achieve driveshaft angles that are in phase (shaft pointing down from trans and up from diff) but the angles are still very shallow (about 1.25deg) which is a little short of where the U-joints operate correctly.
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Closing this thread as most of the links are old and dead. I will leave it up just for whatever information can be had.

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