Well, 10's are going to give you a tighter sound and faster response vs 12's. But they wont be as "boomy" as 12's. The 12's will be louder given they have the same power rating as comparable 10's. 12's are generally preferred for rap/hip-hop where 10's are for rock. But you could always go with 15's
Enclosure is a big factor in sound as well. The sealed enclosure will again give you a tighter base while a ported enclosure will be louder. There are exceptions though. Also be warned that proper enclosures are not a "one size fits all." Your box needs to be built to your speakers. This is especially true towards ported and band-pass enclosures.